The annotated bibliography given in this paper aims to comrehensively explore the various facets of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation as well as the training and development techniques prevalent today in the public administration services sector. A total of 25 sources have been included in the review. In order to attain an evenly balanced perspective on the subject, the sources aim to cover subjects that range from the basics of motivation theory, the characteristics of public administration and the nature of civil servants. Further, considering the increasingly globazlized nature of businesses, the research also includes sources discussing the training and development of civil servants to help them cope with an international environment. At the end of the research, it is sought that the reader have a overall understanding of the concepts of motivation, the state of the debate revolving around the effectiveness of intrnsic motivation when compared to extrinsic as well as other factors pertaining to the training and development of public administration employees.
1. Box, R. C. (2005). Critical and Social Theory in Public Administration. New York: M. E. Sharp.
This book explains the traditional concepts and theories pertaining to public administration and civil services. It explores the psychology behind the anti-administration mindset, understand the public, pragmatism and critical thought, and critical history and theories.
2. Brewer, G. A. (2009, June 7). THE POSSIBILITY OF AN ETHICAL DIMENSION OF PUBLIC SERVICE MOTIVATION. Retrieved April 12, 2012, from Indiana University: http://www.indiana.edu/~ipsm2009/Brewer.pdf
The paper explored the ethical side of public service motivation. The motivation level of public administration employees to act ethically is analyzed through literature review and an evaluation of earlier researches.
3. Bright, L. (2009). Intrinsic Nonmonetary. Public Personnel Management Volume 38, Issue 3 , 15 - 38.
The study seeks to find empirical evidence linking the preference of intrinsic motivation by public administration employees to public service motivation.
4. Camilleri, E. (2007). Antecedents affecting public service motivation. Personnel Review, Volume 36, Issue 3 , 356 - 377.
The article discusses the research into the antecedents and their effects on public service motivation with a focus on how organizational culture and environment impact motivation. Findings of the research as well its practical implications are also analyzed.
5. Chang, S.-H. (2012). Enhancing the Quality of Public Administration Training Plan with Knowledge Management. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from United Nations Public Administration Network: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan009159.pdf
The paper, commissioned by the United Nations Public Administration Network, discusses the growing importance of knowledge management to devise effective training plans for the public administration sector. It follows the entire training planning process including identifying needs, description of programs, training methods, selection of trainers as well as budgeting.
6. Division of Public Administration and Development Management - DPADM. (2012). Rethinking Public Administration: An Overview. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from United Nations Public Administration Network: http://www.unpan.org/Portals/0/60yrhistory/documents/Publications/Rethinking%20public%20administration.pdf
A publication from the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations, this PDF document provides an in-depth understanding of the concept of public administration in the international context. It covers everything from governance, policy and decision making, HR, management systems, reforms, finance as well as topics such as accountability, abuse of power, monitoring and control and information resource management.
7. Francois, P., & Vlassopoulos, M. (2008). Pro-social Motivation and the Delivery of Social Services. CESifo Economic Studies Volume 54, Issue 1 , 22 - 54.
The article reviews literature pertaining to pro-social motivation and its impact on performance. It also explores the optimal combination of monetary rewards, work environment and organizational culture.
8. Frank, S. A., & Lewis, G. B. (2004). Government Employees Working Hard or Hardly Working? The American Review of Public Administration vol. 34 no. 1 , 36 - 51.
The article explores the differences in the motivational needs of government sector and private sector employees as well as their characteristics. It notes that they have differing perspectives and values of the intrinsic and extrinsic rewards that their jobs offer.
9. Frey, B. S., & Jegen, R. (2001). Motivation Crowding Theory. Journal of Economic Surveys Volume 15, Issue 5 , 589 - 611.
The article evaluates the Motivation Crowding Effect which states that the introduction of extrinsic rewards such as monetary benefits could actually undermine the motivation levels through intrinsic rewards. It presents empirical evidence in support of the theory.
10. Georgellis, Y., Iossa, E., & Tabvuma, V. (2011). Crowding Out Intrinsic Motivation in the Public Sector. Journal of Public Adminstration Research and Theory Volume 21, Issue 3 , 473 - 493.
The authors put support the argument that extrinsic rewards tend to reduce the impact of intrinsic motivators which are actually preferred by civil servants. They back their discussions with evidence taken from various researches.
11. Horton, S., Hondeghem, A., & Farnham, D. (2002). Competency Management in the Public Sector - European Variations on a Theme. Burke: International Institue of Administrative Sciences.
Contains chapters written by industry experts, focusing on the subject of managing the competency in public administration in the European context. It explores the importance of human resource management, case studies from various countries that form the European Union and leadership development among top managers in the civil services sector.
12. Huque, A. S., & Vyas, L. (2004). Public Service in a Globalized World - Central training institutes in India and Hong Kong. Burlington: Ashgate Publishing Company.
The book focuses solely on the importance of training for the public services in an increasingly globalized world. In addition to analyzing the pros and cons of centralized public service training with studies on Indian and Hong Kong based institutes, the book explores the challenges that providing such training faces.
13. Menzel, D. C., & White, H. L. (2011). The state of public administration - Issues, challenges and opportunities. New York: M. E. Sharpe Inc.
A collection of articles written by industry experts discussing public administration from a modern day point of view. Topics include the professional aspects of public administration, management issues, networking and partnerships, governance and reform, and international and global challenges.
14. Monteiro, O. (2002, December 11). Workshop No. 3 Public Administration and Management Innovation in Developing Countries - Paper No. 1 Institutional and Organizationa; Restructuring of the Civil Service in Developing Countries. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from United Nations Public Administration Network (UNPAN): http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/un/unpan006350.pdf
Workshop conducted by professor Oscar Monteiro during the Fourth Global Forum on Reinventing Government: Capacity Development Workshops. It focuses on the unique challenges that civil services in developing countries face and how training and development can help meet these challenges.
15. Moon, M. J. (2000). Organizational Commitment Revisited in New Public Management: Motivation, Organizational Culture, Sector, and Managerial Level. Public Performance & Management Review, Volume 24, Issue 2 , 177 - 194.
A study about the organizational commitment and motivational factors involved in the new public management or NPM case. The study seeks to explain that intrinsic as well as extrinsic motivation clubbed with organizational structure, managerial levels and individual characteristics shape the nature of organizational commitment
16. Network of Institutes and Schools of Public Administration in Central and Easter Europe. (2007). Anti-Corruption Training Programmes in central and eastern Europe. Strasbourg: Council of Europe Publishing.
A report on the anti-corruption initiatives, education and training programs being carried out in central and eastern European countries such as Poland, Russia, Czech Republic, Kosovo, Latvia Serbia, Ukraine and Lithuania. It explores the curriculum being taught to civil services students as well as training being provided to existing civil servant. Case studies from the countries are also included in the report.
17. Perry, J. L. (2000). Bringing Society In: Toward a Theory of Public-Service Motivation. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Volume 10, Issue 2 , 471 - 488.
The article explores a theory of motivation pertaining to the public administration domain and studies deviances from the methods of different institutions. A literature review of the flaws in existing theories is included.
18. Petroni, G., & Cloete, F. (2005). New Technologies in Public Administration. Amsterdam: International Institute of Administrative Science.
The book contains contributions from industry experts discussing the new technologies that are influencing the efficiency of the public administration sector. It covers topics that include the conditions for successful implementation of new technology, its benefits, challenges as well as case studies of e-governance from around the world.
19. Scott, P. G., & Pandey, S. K. (2005). Red Tape and Public Service Motivation Findings from a National Survey of Managers in State Health and Human Services Agencies. Review of Public Personnel Administration June 2005 vol. 25 no. 2 , 155 - 180.
The article traces the correlation between red tape and the motivation levels of civil servants based on a recent national survey of managerial employees working in government health and human services agencies.
20. Stillman II, R. J. (2010). Public Administration - Concepts and Cases, Ninth Edition. Boston: Wadsworth Cengage Learning.
The book explores the various kinds of environment or ecology that a public servant interacts with, including the political environment and general environment. It explores the connection between motivation, training and education of civil servants to cope with various national as well as international issues.
21. Task Force on Standards of Excellence for Public Administration Education and Training. (2008, May). Standards of Excellence for Public Administration Education and Training - Final report. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from International Institute of Administrative Sciences: http://www.iias-iisa.org/iasia/e/standards_excellence/Documents/Standards%20of%20Excellence%20English.pdf
A report on a major survey undertaken by the UN of global public administration education and training institutions, carried out by Jide Balogun. After analyzing the results of the survey, a set of standards of excellence was developed and is listed in this final report.
22. United Nations Development Programme. (2003, June 1). CIVIL SERVICE TRAINING in the context of Public Administration Reform - A Comparative Study of selected countries from Central and Eastern Europe, and the former Soviet Union 1989 - 2003. Retrieved April 11, 2012, from United Nations Public Administration Network: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/untc/unpan013648.pdf
The report surveys and studies the reforms in the civil services sector of six countries in central and eastern Europe between 1989 and 2003. Case studies from Albania, Armenia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania and Slovenia are included.
23. Vandenabeele, W. (2007). Toward a public administration theory of public service motivation. Public Management Review, Volume 9, Issue 4 , 545 - 556.
This journal article explores the concept of Public Service Motivation or PSM that is fast gaining prominence in the public administration domain.
24. Weibel, A., Rost, K., & Osterloh, M. (2010). Pay for Performance in the Public Sector —Benefits and (Hidden) Costs. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory Volume 20, Issue 2 , 387 - 412.
The article analyzes the current public sector reforms that have introduced private sector incentives such as ‘pay for performance’ and the effect this has on the motivation levels of public administration employees. It also evaluates the cost effectiveness of such motivational techniques when compared to traditional methods.
25. Wright, B. E., & Grant, A. M. (2010). Unanswered Questions about Public Service Motivation: Designing Research to Address Key Issues of Emergence and Effects. Public Administration Review Volume 70, Issue 5 , 691 - 700.
The authors of the article question the basic public administration tenets and analyze the results of key researches on the subject. Gaps are identified and the authors aim to find a new and solid direction for future research on motivation for civil servants.
The research of the sources mentioned in the annotated bibliography facilitates a better understanding of the concepts and theories of motivation in relation government sector employment. Intrinsic and extrinsic motivators are analyzed in detail and it is found that public administration services employees are more driven by intrinsic motivators than extrinsic ones. It is also shown how forcing monetary rewards into the equation may actually hamper the impact of intrinsic rewards. By the end of the research, the reader should have a clear perspective on the subject of motivation of public administration employees.