Thomas Shapiro in his book “The hidden cost of being African American” has highlighted the issue and touched several aspects of the same. Thomas Shapiro is a sociologist and pokross Professor of Law and Social Policy and the Director of the Institute on Assets and Social Policy. He has evidently portrayed the racial inequality scenario and before writing this book. He researched on thousands of families, interviewed them and then presented his book which is well acclaimed among all sections of the society.
Thomas Shapiro has described the hidden factors that cause the racial discrimination to African Americans. He has described that there is at least ten fold gaps between the whites and blacks in regard of income and capital. He has mentioned how the African Americans suffer in their daily life just because of being blacks. They can not easily purchase the houses because banks have different policies for whites and blacks. African Americans can not send their children in good schools as they can not afford the school fee. Shapiro says that the white people have family properties and they can afford anything they want but the African Americans do not have any family property also and they have to struggle for every need of their life.
Melvin L. Oliver and Thomas M. Shapiro. (2006). Black wealth, white wealth: a new perspective on racial inequality. London: Routledge.
Shapiro, T. M. (2004). The Hidden Cost of Being African American: How Wealth Perpetuates Inequality. New York: Oxford University Press, Inc.